Jørgen Carling

Research Professor

Jørgen Carling
Email: jorgen@prio.org
Work phone: (+47) 22 54 77 64
Twitter: @jorgencarling
Website: www.jorgencarling.org
CV: Download CV

Research Interests

What I am doing at the moment: Spring 2021 
Please see my personal website for an update on plans and activities

Follow me on Twitter: @jorgencarling

  • Theories of migration and transnationalism
  • Migration aspirations and intentions
  • Networks and chain migration processes
  • Family and gender in migration
  • Immigration policy and migration pressure
  • Border control and migrant fatalities
  • Undocumented migration and human smuggling
  • The demography of immigrant communities
  • Remittances and migration-development links

I use diverse methods, often in combination:

  • Semi-structured interviews
  • Participant observation in multi-sited fieldwork
  • Purpose-made sample surveys
  • Statistical analysis of existing survey data
  • Demographic projection from register data
  • Discourse and document analysis

Logo

I am a member of the PRIO Migration Centre, which has a separate section on the PRIO website.

Geographical scope of my research

Jørgen Carling research scope 2019
Jørgen Carling research scope 2019

Legend: Countries where I have done ethnographic fieldwork.Countries where I have been involved in other data collection. Countries where colleagues have collected data that I have analysed. Countries where data has been collected under my project leadership (including planned data collection in ongoing projects).Countries that I have written about based on secondary sources. 

Editorial board memberships
I am an Editorial Board member of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, the International Migration Review, International Migration, Migration Letters, and Migration Studies.

Background

​​​​​​Personal profiles on other sites
LinkedIn
Academia.edu
Google Scholar Citations

Language skills
Mother tongue: Norwegian
Fluency:
English, and Cape Verdean Kriol
Reading proficiency: Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German, French
All but forgotten: Esperanto and Japanese

Work experience
2014-current: Research Professor, PRIO.
2012-2014: Research Professor; Research Director, PRIO.
2011-2011: Research Professor; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2009-2011: Senior Researcher; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2007-2009: Senior Researcher, PRIO.
2002-2007: Researcher, PRIO.
1999: Research assistant, Statistics Norway
1998: Research assistant, Institute for Social Research
1997: Research assistant, Statistics Norway

Academic visitorships
2016: UNU-MERIT United Nations University and Maastricht University
2010: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore
2005: COMPAS, University of Oxford
2003: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

Education
2007. PhD (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
2001. Cand. polit. (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1998. Cand. mag. (Human geography, demography and economics)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1993. International Baccalaureate
United World College of the Atlantic, Wales.

Publications

The following publications are specific to the PRIO Migration Centre. A more complete list is available at www.prio.org.

All Publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Schutte, Sebastian; Jonas Vestby; Jørgen Carling & Halvard Buhaug (2021) Climatic conditions are weak predictors of asylum migration, Nature Communications 12: 2067–.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2020) New economics of transnational living, Population, Space and Place 2410: 1–11.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2020) Circumstantial migration: how Gambian journeys to China enrich migration theory, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1739385.
Collins, Francis L. & Jørgen Carling (2018) Aspiration, desire and drivers of migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44(6): 909–926.
Carling, Jørgen & Kerilyn Schewel (2018) Revisiting aspiration and ability in international migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44(6): 945–963.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Visualizing the transnational connections of China’s most African neighbourhood, Environment and Planning a 49(6): 1209–1213.
Carling, Jørgen; Richard Brown; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Cindy Horst; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Schmalzbauer, Leah; Cecilia Menjívar & Jørgen Carling (2012) Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández-Carretero (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Carling, Jørgen; Lisa Åkesson & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández-Carretero (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Åkesson, Lisa & Jørgen Carling (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism, Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential, International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances, Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Unauthorized migration from Africa to Spain, International Migration 45(4): 3–37.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders, International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Fra Nigeria til Europa: Innvandring, menneskesmugling og menneskehandel [From Nigeria to Europe: Immigration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons], Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders, Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132.
Carling, Jørgen (2003) Cartographies of Cape Verdean transnationalism, Global Networks 3(4): 533–539.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42.

PhD Thesis

Carling, Jørgen (2007) Transnationalism in the Context of Restrictive Immigration Policy. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Book Chapter

Carling, Jørgen (2020) Two-step approaches and the concept of aspirations in migration theory, in Vezzoli, Simona; & Hein de Haas, eds, Renewing the migration debate. Building disciplinary and geographical bridges to explain global migration (KNAW Academy Colloquium). Amsterdam: The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the International Migration Institute (IMI) (37–45).
Carling, Jørgen (2016) West and Central Africa, in McAuliffe, Marie; & Frank Laczko, eds, Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: a Global Review of the Emerging Evidence Base. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (25–53).
Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Évora, Iolanda; Cláudio Alves Furtado; & Pierre-Joseph Laurent, eds, As Ciências Sociais em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Making and Breaking a Chain: Migrants’ Decisions about Helping Others Migrate, in Horst, Cindy; Oliver Bakewell; Lucinda Fonseca; & Godfried Engbersen, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback in International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (156–182).
Carling, Jørgen & Dominique Jolivet (2015) Exploring 12 Migration Corridors: Rationale, Methodology and Overview, in Fonseca, Lucinda; Godfried Engbersen; Cindy Horst; & Oliver Bakewell, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback in International MIgration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (18–46).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Carlos Vargas-Silva, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (137–162).
Carling, Jørgen (2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration, in Gutwirth, Serge; & J. Peter Burgess, eds, A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. Brussels: Brussels University Press (VUB) (33–46).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Castles, Stephen; & Raúl Delgado Wise, eds, Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (43–64).
Batalha, Luís & Jørgen Carling (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (13–32).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (91–100).
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese Migrants in Cape Verde, in Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo; Chris Alden; & Daniel Large, eds, China Returns to Africa: a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. London: Hurst (319–338).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Lobban, Jr., Richard A.; & Paul Khalil Saucier, eds, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances, in Migration, Remittances and Development. Paris: OECD (289–296).
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Incorporer certains enseignements des recherches sur la migration dans les politiques des transferts de fonds [Incorporating Insights from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances], in Migrations, transferts de fonds et développement. Paris: OECD (309–316).

Edited Volume

Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo: Nordic Demographic Society. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Carling, Jørgen; Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel (2015) Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption, Migration Information Source 5.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Lee, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Pia Orrenius (2014) The International Migration Review at 50: Reflecting on Half a Century of International Migration Research and Looking Ahead, International Migration Review 48: 3–36.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2005) Sie wagen und gewinnen. Chinesische Händler in Afrika. [They Dare and Win. Chinese Traders in Africa.], Der Überblick: Zeitschrift für ökumenische Begegnung und internationale Zusammenarbeit 41(4): 19–23.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Innvandrere prioriterer å sende penger til familien [Immigrants Give Priority to Sending Money to the Family], Samfunnsspeilet 18(6): 53–63.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Transnazionalismo "olandese-capoverdiano". Denaro, culture e parentela [Dutch-Cape Verdean Transnationalism. Cash, Culture and Kinship], Afriche e Orienti 6: 186–202.

Popular Article

Carling, Jørgen (2021) What makes people want to migrate? One chart sums it up, The Startup, 2 February.
Østby, Gudrun; Trude Lappegård; Bård Harstad; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling; Torbjørn Skardhamar & Carl Henrik Knutsen (2018) Forskningsrådet vil snu opp ned på hvordan forskning kvalitetssikres, forbedres, vurderes og deles | Forskere ved PRIO og UiO, Aftenposten, 14 November.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring, 4 October.
Carling, Jørgen; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Cindy Horst & Marta Bivand Erdal (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten, 8 November.
Carling, Jørgen & Frida Austvoll Nome (2005) Hvem er menneskesmuglerne? [Who are the Human Smugglers?], Dagbladet, 1 February.

PRIO Report

Erdal, Marta Bivand; Ebba Tellander; & Jørgen Carling (2017) Insights from Migration Research at PRIO, PRIO Research Summary. Oslo: PRIO.
Pettersen, Silje Vatne; Jørgen Carling; Erlend Paasche; Tove Heggli Sagmo; Marta Bivand Erdal; Marta Bolognani; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; & Ceri Oeppen (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return Migration, PRIO Project Summary. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling; Hilde Wallacher; & Marta Bivand Erdal (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Carling, Jørgen (2001) Aspiration and ability in international migration: Cape Verdean experiences of mobility and immobility. MA thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Conference Paper

Hernández-Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2008) Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex, 18–19 September.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Mellom to hjemland [Between Two Homelands], presented at Utlendingsdirektoratets vårkonferanse 2004, Radisson SAS Oslo Plaza, Oslo, 19 April.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Unauthorized Entry at Europe’s Southern Borders: Routes, Dynamics and Fatalities, presented at International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, Rome, 25–27 November .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy options for increasing the benefits of remittancesGeneva, 27 September—1 October.

PRIO Policy Brief

Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Mathias Hatleskog Tjønn (2020) Diaspora, Development and Integration: A Review of Policies and Practice, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2018) Is ‘Sustainable Migration’ a Valuable Concept?, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Refugee Advocacy and the Meaning of ‘Migrants’, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Pettersen, Silje Vatne & Jørgen Carling (2015) The Matrix of Attachment, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Pettersen, Silje Vatne & Jørgen Carling (2015) Tilknytningsmatrisen [The Matrix of Attachment], PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen; Mathias Hatleskog Tjønn; Cindy Horst & Marta Bivand Erdal (2020) Integration and Development: Need for Dialogue, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2019) Pathways to an ERC Grant: Learning from Success and Failure, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Cathrine Talleraas (2018) Defining Sustainable Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root Causes and Drivers of Migration: Implications for Humanitarian Efforts and Development Cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Wu, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Elin Berstad Mortensen (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol; Cindy Horst & Jørgen Carling (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Policy Challenges Facing Cape Verde in the Areas of Migration and Diaspora Contributions to Development, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Hagen-Zanker, Jessica; Gemma Hennessey; Jørgen Carling; & Rashid Memon (2020) Survey data collection, MIGNEX Handbook Chapter, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2019) Research ethics and research integrity, MIGNEX Handbook Chapter, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Dempster, Helen; Jørgen Carling; Jessica Hagen-Zanker; & Amy Leach (2019) Communications and impact, MIGNEX Handbook Chapter, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2019) Measuring migration aspirations and related concepts, MIGNEX Background Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) meaningofmigrants.org [Web site].
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Expert Panellist Statement on the Smuggling of Migrants, Fifth Informal Thematic Session in the process towards a Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Vienna: Office of the President of the General Assembly, United Nations.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) European Strategies for Reducing 'Unwanted' Immigration, DIIS Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS).

Report - External Series

Aslany, Maryam; Jørgen Carling; Mathilde Bålsrud Mjelva; & Tone Sommerfelt (2021) Systematic review of determinants of migration aspirations, QuantMig deliverable, 2,2. Southampton: University of Southampton.
Carling, Jørgen; & Mathilde Bålsrud Mjelva (2021) Survey instruments and survey data on migration aspirations, QuantMig project deliverable, 2. Southampton: University of Southampton.
Czaika, Mathias; Marta Bivand Erdal; & Jørgen Carling (2020) Translating Migration Theory Into Empirical Propositions, QuantMig Project Deliverable, 1. Southampton: University of Southampton.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) How should migrant smuggling be confronted?, Migration Research Leaders Syndicate in Support of the Global Compact for Migration. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Horwood, Christopher; Jørgen Carling; & Anne Gallagher (2015) Beyond Definitions: Global migration and the smuggling–trafficking nexus, RMMS Discussion Paper, 2. Nairobi: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Wu, Jennifer; Mame Yassine Sarr; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández-Carretero; & Jørgen Carling (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.
Carling, Jørgen (2006) Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, IOM Migration Research Series, 23. Geneva.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Gender Dimensions of International Migration, Global Migration Perspectives, 35. .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy Options for Increasing the Benefits of Remittances, COMPAS Working Paper. Oxford.
Carling, Jørgen (2001) Aspiration and ability in international migration: Cape Verdean experiences of mobility and immobility, 0. Oslo.

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Review of Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, in Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 11(3): 399–400.