People who are dissatisfied with their current life can respond in various ways. We examine the factors that are associated with different types of responses in the form of economic initiative, civic or political engagement, or wanting to leave their local area – for somewhere else in the country or abroad. Key takeaways:
- Those who experience livelihood hardships are more likely to take a migration response than an economic response.
- Those who are discontent with public services are more likely to take a migration response, but less likely to take a political one.
- Trust in others is more strongly associated with addressing grievances through local action, compared to the option of leaving.